It’s Time: New Prop 65 Warnings are Required August 30, 2018

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In November 2017, we advised readers of Conkle, Kremer & Engel’s blog that products sold in California would become subject to new Proposition 65 warning requirements beginning August 30, 2018.  The new “Clear and Reasonable Warning Regulations” from California Office of Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) significantly changed warning requirements for affected products that are manufactured on or after August 30, 2018.  Among other changes, the new regulations affect the safe-harbor warning requirements that govern the language, text, and format of such warnings, and also impose downstream warning mandates through retail, online and catalog sales channels. Generally, some of the major changes that companies selling consumer products should be aware of include:

  • The “warning symbol” :  A graphic “warning symbol” is now required on consumer products, other than food products. The “warning symbol” must be printed in a size no smaller than the height of the bolded word “WARNING,” and should be in black and yellow, but can be in black and white if the sign, label, or shelf tag for the product is not printed using the color yellow. The entire warning must be in a type size no smaller than the largest type size used for other “consumer information” on the product, and in no case should be smaller than 6-point type.
  • Listing of a specific chemical:  Warnings must now specifically identify at least one listed ingredient chemical for each toxicological endpoint (cancer and reproductive toxicology) and include a link to OEHHA’s new website P65Warnings.ca.gov. Certain special categories of products, such as food and alcoholic beverages, have a specialized URL that must be used instead.
  • New warning language:  Warning language must now warn of an exposure to a chemical or chemicals from the product, rather than just warn that the product contains the chemical or chemical. For example, “ WARNING: This product can expose you to diethanolamine, which is known to the State of California to cause cancer. For more information go to www.P65Warnings.ca.gov.”
  • Internet and catalog requirements:  For internet sales, warnings must be provided with a clearly marked hyperlink on the product display page, or otherwise prominently displayed to the purchaser before completion of the transaction. It will not be sufficient if the product sold on the internet bears the required label, but the internet point of purchase listing does not. For catalog sales, a warning must be provided in a manner that clearly associates it with the item being purchased.
  • Short-form warnings:  The regulations allow the use of certain abbreviated “short-form” warnings, which may omit the identity of any specific chemical, only if the warning is printed on the immediate container, box or wrapper of the consumer product or is affixed to the product.  For example, “ WARNING: Cancer – www.P65Warnings.ca.gov.”  If a short-form warning is used on the product, the same short-form warning may be used for internet and catalog sales.

In addition, the regulations seek to minimize the burden on retail sellers of consumer products. Manufacturers, producers, distributors, and other upstream businesses comply with warning requirements if they affix a clear and reasonable warning to the product, or provide written notice and warning materials to an authorized agent of a retailer, among other requirements. Retailers will only be liable for Proposition 65 violations under limited circumstances, such as if they cover, obscure, or alter a product’s warning label.

The particular requirements for each specific product can vary, so manufacturers and resellers are well-advised to seek qualified counsel to review their circumstances before committing to potentially costly label and website changes that may not comply with the new requirements.  Conkle, Kremer & Engel attorneys stay up to date on important regulatory developments affecting their clients in the manufacturing and resale industries, and are ready to help clients navigate the changing regulatory landscape in California and elsewhere.

 

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California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 – A U.S. Version of EU’s GDPR

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The California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, regarded as the most comprehensive privacy law in the United States, was unanimously passed by the California legislature and signed into law by governor Jerry Brown on June 29, 2018. The bill (AB 375) was fast-tracked through the State Senate and Assembly in a rush to defeat an even stricter privacy ballot initiative, which was introduced by Californians for Consumer Privacy. After weeks of intense negotiations with technology companies, Californians for Consumer Privacy agreed to withdraw the initiative if AB 375 was signed into law.

The  new law, which takes effect January 1, 2020, is a reactive measure to recent privacy and data breaches, including the Cambridge Analytica scandal, and governs the use of California consumers’ data by larger companies. Businesses are required to disclose the categories of information to be collected prior to collection, as well as the identity of third-parties that are allow to access that information. Consumers also have the right to request the data that has been collected on them and may also request that the data be deleted. While consumers over 16 years old may opt out of having their data sold to third-parties without being penalized, businesses are prohibited from selling data collected from consumers under 16 years old unless these underage consumers affirmatively opt-in. The bill also gives California consumers the right to sue for up to $750 in the event of a data breach involving non-encrypted personal information due to the failure to implement and maintain reasonable security procedures and practices.

While this California law is the strictest in the nation, it is less restrictive than the EU GDPR.  For example, the GDPR requires consumers opt into, or give consent, by “clear affirmative action,” prior to the collection of personal data, whereas the California law only requires disclosure prior to the collection of personal data and allows them to opt-out of the sale of personal data. Most importantly, the GDPR requires any business that offers goods or services to consumers in the EU and collects any personal data from those EU residents to comply with the GDPR, while the California law only applies to companies that do business in California and satisfy one of the following criteria: (1) have an annual gross revenue exceeding $25 million; (2) in connection with a commercial purpose, annually buy, receive, sell, or share the personal information of 50,000 or more consumers; or (3) derive 50% or more of its annual revenues from selling consumers’ personal information.

The California Consumer Privacy Act may not remain in final form as passed. Tech companies have already expressed their desire to lobby legislators to change certain provisions of the law which they believe will result in unintended consequences. Lawmakers are expected to make amendments to the bill over the course of the next 18 months.

Conkle Kremer & Engel will continue to monitor the status of the California Consumer Privacy Act and will report on changes to the final version of this law, if any. CK&E has many years of experience advising clients about regulatory compliance issues they face, and helping them prepare for foreseeable changes in the law.

 

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The Conkle Firm Presentation at 2018 PCPC Legal & Regulatory Conference

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On May 9, 2018 Conkle, Kremer & Engel attorney John A. Conkle presented on “The State of the States” panel at the 2018 Personal Care Products Council’s Legal & Regulatory Conference.  The panel focused on the increasingly strong role of state legislatures and state regulatory bodies in addressing issues of importance to the personal care products and cosmetics industries.  The panel featured lively discussion of issues arising from the evolving patchwork of laws and regulations among numerous states, including California’s infamous Proposition 65, slack fill laws, and labeling and ingredient disclosure regulations, ingredient phase-out requirements and outright bans, volatile organic compound limitations to protect air quality, and animal testing regulations.  The discussion included the importance of preservation and presentation of evidence to support manufacturers’ positions, including testimony in depositions and at trial.

The panel’s presentation is available here for review.  Contact John Conkle to discuss the latest issues affecting the state of the personal care products and cosmetics industries.

 

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CKE Attorneys Attend Craft Brewers Conference in Nashville

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From April 30 to May 3, 2018, attorneys Evan Pitchford and Zach Page of Conkle, Kremer & Engel attended the Brewers Association’s Craft Brewers Conference in Nashville, Tennessee.  The Conference, with nearly 15,000 attendees, is the premier trade show, educational, and networking event for the craft brewing industry.  At the Conference, Mr. Pitchford and Mr. Page participated in numerous business and legal affairs seminars and conferred with brewery operators and executives, suppliers, attorneys, accountants, and consultants from California and across the country.

While the main theme of the Conference was solidarity and cooperation between independent craft brewers and their networks, prominent legal and business issues discussed among attendees often focused on the increasingly crowded space of the craft beer market.  This increasing competition has resulted in intellectual property conflicts and disputes (for example, regarding trademarks for brewery names or branding for particular beers) that craft brewers need to plan around when starting their business and expanding their portfolios.  CK&E has attorneys like Mr. Page and Mr. Pitchford who are experienced in assisting clients in selecting, registering, and enforcing trademarks and trade dress in many consumer product industries.

Another hot business topic concerned distribution models for small breweries.  In several states (including California), self-distribution is available for small breweries (California allows for self-distribution regardless of volume), but as our previous blog noted, oftentimes a small brewery reaches a point where it cannot handle its own distribution and must seek out a distributor.  And, of course, in many other states, self-distribution is not permitted at all, necessitating the involvement of a distributor when a brewery wishes to sell draught beer or package their products.  Many small breweries are concerned not only with the myriad choices of distributors, but also with finding a distributor that is the right fit and will actively promote their portfolio, and with the often restrictive laws that are involved in manufacturer-distribution relationships.  Breweries should certainly be choosy about their distributors when possible, and in many jurisdictions there are an array of potential contractual provisions (for example, regarding sales goals, chain vs. independent accounts or other account stratification, marketing, plans for brand growth, audits, etc.) that can help shape a distributor relationship before it starts.  It pays to consider and discuss as many contractual parameters as possible before signing a distribution agreement.

Additional hot topics at the Craft Brewers Conference included new Tax and Trade Bureau funding for enforcement, government regulations of taprooms and brewpubs, off-premise sales, and licenses for short-term out-of-state sales (e.g. for festivals or competitions).  As the craft brewing industry continues to grow in footprint and sophistication, look for business and legal issues to be pushed even further to the forefront of the discussion.

Contact Conkle, Kremer & Engel for assistance with your brewery business or distribution needs.

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The Conkle Firm to Present at 2018 PCPC Legal & Regulatory Conference

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Conkle, Kremer & Engel attorney John A. Conkle will be on the panel opening the 2018 Personal Care Products Council’s Legal & Regulatory Conference.  The panel will present “The State of the States,” which will focus on the increasingly strong interest of state legislatures and state regulatory bodies in addressing issues of importance to the personal care products and cosmetics industries.

States have come to recognize that, with the U.S. Congress largely gridlocked and federal regulatory agencies in a deregulation mood, the path is open for the states to regulate consumer industries in manners that they deem fit.  The result is a continuously evolving patchwork of laws and regulations that can be difficult for industry participants to navigate.

Issues to be discussed at the May 9, 2018 panel presentation include California’s infamous Proposition 65, slack fill laws, and labeling and ingredient disclosure regulations that include even public databases disclosing products’ ingredients found by state governments to be detrimental.  Further, state regulations can include ingredient phase-out requirements and outright bans, volatile organic compound limitations to protect air quality, and even animal testing regulations that can affect industry participants’ ability to compete in international trade.

A lively discussion is inevitable given the rich and topical subject matter and the vital industry interests affected.  The rest of the Legal and Regulatory Conference program should be just as engaging, covering topics such as employment law, cannabis (THC, CBD, marijuana extracts and hemp) in cosmetics and personal care products.  The many other topics to be covered in the three-day conference in Savannah, Georgia can be found in the conference program.

 

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The Conkle Firm to Attend Craft Brewers Conference and BrewExpo America

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Attorneys Evan Pitchford and Zachary Page of Conkle, Kremer & Engel will be attending the 2018 Craft Brewers Conference and BrewExpo America in Nashville, Tennessee from April 30 to May 3.  The Conference, presented by the Brewers Association trade group, is one of the largest craft brewing-centric trade shows in the world, with thousands of industry professionals and exhibitors in attendance annually.

Mr. Pitchford and Mr. Page will attend to take meetings and keep abreast of the latest industry trends, including legal developments, craft brewing distribution and business issues, and evolving beer styles.  Conkle, Kremer & Engel brings its expertise to bear on a number of beer industry-specific issues, such as brand protection and intellectual property, distribution and vendor relations, regulatory issues, advertising and labeling, employment law, and litigation and alternative dispute resolution in state and federal courts.

If you’re an industry professional or craft beer-related business who will be at the Craft Brewers Conference and would like to connect with Mr. Pitchford and Mr. Page before, during, or after the event, please contact them at e.pitchford@conklelaw.com and z.page@conklelaw.com.  They would be happy to arrange initial discussions about particular issues you may be facing.

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CK&E Attorneys Lobby California Legislature with PCPC

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On March 20, 2018 Conkle, Kremer & Engel attorneys Eric S. Engel and Aleen Tomassian helped the Personal Care Products Council fulfill part of its mission by organizing and executing an effective lobbying day to advance the legislative interests of the industry.  Led by PCPC Senior Vice President Government Affairs Mike Thompson and PCPC Director of Government Affairs Karin Ross, a group of personal care product industry members, lobbyists and advisors heard presentations by pivotal regulatory agencies and then met with key legislators and their staffs to address issues of importance to the industry.

PCPC Chief Scientist Alex Kowcz seminar to Calif Legislative Staff

The PCPC held a luncheon at which it presented its first Legislator of the Year Awards to congresspersons who have been the most effective in advancing the important interests of both business and consumers in relation to personal care products.  Legislative staff also received an educational presentation from PCPC’s new Chief Scientist, Alex Kowcz, to help bring to Legislators the most current scientific information about issues affecting personal care products.  After a long day of meetings, participants unwound and connected at an informal reception for legislators, the governor’s office and administration officials at Ella, a popular restaurant near the State Capitol.

 

Eric S. Engel and Aleen Tomassian at PCPC Calif Lobby Day Reception

Some of the highlights of the 2018 PCPC California Lobby Day included a presentation by Meredith Williams, Deputy Director of Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), and Rick Brausch, Chief of DTSC’s Policy and Program Support Division, Hazardous Waste Management.  The mission of the DTSC is the Safer Consumer Products (SCP) program, directed toward advancing the design, development and use of products that are chemically safer for people and the environment.  The aim is to reduce toxic chemicals in consumer products and create new business opportunities in green chemistry.

Dr. Williams advised the PCPC group that DTSC’s SCP program intends to focus over the next three years on nail salon products, particularly to assure a safe working environment for salon employees as well as customers, such as by assuring adequate ventilation and safety equipment.  Dr. Williams also noted that Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are not only within the ambit of California’s Air Resources Board (ARB) as to their effect on the environment, but they are also within the scope of DTSC’s authority when regulation of VOCs can meaningfully enhance protection of human health.

On February 8, 2018, DTSC released a draft 2018-2020 Priority Product Work Plan for public review, in which “Beauty, Personal Care and Hygiene Products” are identified as targets for possible regulation.  Of some concern to PCPC, the Priority Product Work Plan includes DTSC’s interest in broad classifications of chemicals without defining exactly which chemicals in what formulations are of concern.  For example, DTSC’s Priority Product Work Plan identifies oxybenzone, BPA, DEA, formaldehyde, phthalates, parabens, triclosan, titanium dioxide, tolulene and VOCs as classes chemicals being considered for possible regulation, but there are a great many specific chemicals, formulations and uses within such classes, and not all of them are likely to be of concern to DTSC.  PCPC expressed its concern that broad classifications can cause confusion among manufacturers and consumers, and unnecessarily inhibit product development and sales.  For example, oxybenzone (aka Benophenone-3) is one of just 16 chemicals approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as safe and effective for use as an ultraviolet (UV) filter to achieve broad-spectrum sun protection.  The health benefits of effective UV sunscreens are well documented, but the broad suggestion of “endocrine toxicity” or “dermatoxicity” in DTSC’s identification of oxybenzone is on shaky scientific footing.  Dr. Williams noted that the 2018-2020 Priority Product Work Plan is only in draft form, and that DTSC recognizes the broad nature of the chemical groups identified and is working on identifying specific chemicals of concern rather than entire classes of chemicals.

DTSC’s Richard Brausch spoke of the hazardous waste logistics issues facing the personal care product industry, affecting the entire supply chain from manufacturers to retailers.  The issue often occurs when products are returned from retailers, and questions arise as to whether they may be regarded as hazardous waste if they are no longer considered fit for regular sale, such as when new product labeling is introduced.  Issues can arise as to who has responsibility for proper transportation and disposal of the products, whether by sale in secondary markets, repair or refurbishment, donation to charities or recycling.  It is notable here that improper transportation and disposal has led some local authorities to sue retailers and wholesalers for failing to use hazardous waste transporters.  That in turn has caused retailers to impose anticipatory disposal charges on manufacturers and wholesalers for a wide range of products.  PCPC therefore supports Assembly Member Bill Quirk’s introduction of new legislation, AB 2660, which places the onus on the disposal company to determine the correct method of transportation, as that is not within the expertise expected of retailers.

The overriding hazardous waste concern is that California uses an “aquatic toxicity” (aka “fish kill”) test that is grossly out of alignment with federal law, and which results in most cosmetic products being characterized as hazardous under California law.  The “fish kill” test is exactly like it sounds – it tests only whether quantities of the subject product added to a water tank will kill fathead minnows.  The test is not regarded as especially accurate, notably because high viscosity products that are otherwise harmless can kill the fish by clogging their gills.  Further, the test presents a significant problem for the personal care products industry, which has taken a strong stand against animal testing, so manufacturers generally do not conduct this “fish kill” test on finished products.  PCPC therefore advocates a more modern approach to accomplish the same goal, by use of a more recently developed fish embryo test (FET), in which live fish are not killed.

An interesting side note is that SB 1249 was introduced by Senator Cathleen Galgiani to prohibit importation or retail sale of any cosmetic that was developed or manufactured using animal testing after January 1, 2020.  While PCPC takes a strong stand against animal testing, it could not support the bill as written because it included no exception for products marketed in countries (notably China) which require that products be subject to animal testing.  Rather, the PCPC has been working to obtain an amendment of the proposed legislation to make it conform to that of the European Union, which has strong anti-animal testing regulations but allows for accommodations to make products acceptable for sale in China.

Dr. Michael Benjamin, Air Resources Board Chief of Air Quality Planning and Science spoke about the substantial product data that ARB had collected from product manufacturers selling in California, through extensive annual surveys conducted over the past three years.  From that data, ARB is working to identify trends in emissions of VOCs.  Of particular interest is a February 15, 2018 publication in the academic journal Science of a study of VOC emissions from consumer products.  The Science publication (Volatile Chemical Products Emerging as Largest Petrochemical Source of Urban Organic Emissions, by Brian C. McDonald, Joost A. de Gouw, Jessica B. Gilman and others), Science Vol. 35, Issue 6377, pp. 760-764 (Feb. 16, 2018)) caught popular attention and some popular press because it found that vehicle emissions had become so much cleaner over the past decades that they were now responsible for less than half of VOC emissions.  Overall, the total volume of VOCs had diminished greatly.  Further, while the Science article authors made many assumptions on which they based their assessment of VOC contributions of consumer products, Mr. Benjamin pointed out that ARB has the actual data from its industry surveys to determine whether the author’s assumptions and conclusions are well founded.  ARB therefore intends to do its own assessment of the points made in the Science article to determine what further action is appropriate.

PCPC’s first Legislator of the Year Awards were presented to Senator Ed Hernandez, Assembly Member Bill Quirk and Senator Galgiani.  In his comments to PCPC members, Senator Hernandez emphasized, “We want business to stay here in California, we want businesses to be successful.  There’s a lot of people here that purchase your products.”   Assemblyman Quirk addressed the need for common sense limitations on legislation such as Proposition 65, remarking that “[Someone] sent me a package of Coors beer with a Prop 65 warning on it.  We now have cases in court where people want Prop 65 warnings on coffee. * * * One study after another shows it’s not a health risk. * * * We’ve got to do something about this.  I’m definitely going to be working as time goes on in the legislature so that we don’t end up with things that are harmless being labeled.”  Finally, Senator Galgiani observed that good legislative policy is not a zero sum game:  “It’s not about having a proposal that’s just good for the environment or just good for business but we can meet in the middle and have regulations and policies that work for both sides and help everybody involved.  It’s just harder to get there – it takes more work, it takes more time and it takes patience, and all of you [at PCPC] have done a great job.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See the Beauty Industry Report article on the PCPC California Lobby Day here.

 

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2018 Changes to the California Alcoholic Beverage Control Act

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Each year brings changes to the California Alcoholic Beverage Control Act, and 2018 is no exception.  Most of the changes for 2018 are quite esoteric, relating only to the provision of licenses in particular counties or venues, or allowing some additional rights to non-profit corporations who use temporary licenses for events.

However, a chief new feature of the ABC Act that will have state-wide impact is the Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) Training Program Act of 2017 (California Business and Professions Code § 25680 et seq.).  The RBS Act provides that the California ABC will develop a best-practices training program by 2020 that all on-premises servers of alcohol (and their managers) throughout the state will need to complete in order to be certified to serve alcohol.  Servers employed prior to July 1, 2021 must complete the program by August 31, 2021, and all servers hired after July 1, 2021 must complete the program within 60 days of being hired.  ABC advisories indicate that food servers, bartenders, cashiers, doormen, and bouncers all may be considered “servers” for purposes of the RBS Act.

The RBS law appears to encompass a wide manner of licensees that operate on premises – bars, restaurants, brewpubs, tasting rooms, clubs.  For non-profit special events/temporary licenses, the licensee is required to designate one certified server who must remain on site for the entire event.  Covered licensees are required to maintain records of their various certifications, and violators are subject to unspecified “disciplinary action.”

The 2018 ABC Act also permits for the first time beer manufacturers to provide free or discounted ground transportation rides for consumers (i.e. from the brewery taproom to local hotels, etc.) for purposes of public safety.  (California Business and Professions Code § 25600.)  This harmonizes the treatment of beer manufacturers with winegrowers and distillers.  The manufacturer cannot, however, make the transportation contingent on the purchase of an alcoholic beverage, and beer wholesalers cannot have any interest in the transportation arrangement.

In instances where small beer manufacturers (License Type 23) and winegrowers have adjacent production facilities, the 2018 revisions also permit a common-licensed area in which consumers can drink both wine and beer.  (California Business and Professions Code § 25607.)  This is a new exception to the general prohibition of anyone possessing alcoholic beverages on a manufacturer’s premises other than the types that manufacturer is licensed to produce.

Staying up to date on laws and regulations affecting the industry is vital to successfully protecting and growing alcoholic beverage businesses.  For assistance navigating beer-industry specific legal issues, contact Conkle, Kremer & Engel.

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California’s Cleaning Product Right to Know Act Requires Ingredient Disclosure

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California became the first state in the nation to have a cleaning products disclosure law, after Governor Brown signed the Cleaning Product Right to Know Act of 2017 (S.B. 258 (Lara)) into law in late 2017.

The Cleaning Product Right to Know Act requires manufacturers of certain cleaning products sold in California to disclose on the product label and on the product’s Internet web site certain information related to known hazardous chemicals contained in the product.  Manufacturers will have until January 1, 2020 to comply with the online disclosure requirements, and until January 1, 2021 to comply with the product label disclosure requirements.  However, any intentionally added ingredient that is regulated by California’s Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act (commonly known as Proposition 65) will not have to be listed until January 1, 2023.

The new law applies to so-called “designated products”, which are defined as a finished product that is an air care product, automotive product, general cleaning product, or a polish or floor maintenance product used primarily for janitorial, domestic or institutional cleaning purposes.  It does not apply to foods, drugs and cosmetics, trial samples, or industrial products specifically manufactured for certain industrial manufacturing processes.

The product label will be required to disclose each intentionally added ingredient contained in the product that is included on any of 22 specified designated chemical lists – including chemicals listed pursuant to Proposition 65.  Alternatively, manufacturers may list all intentionally added ingredients contained in the product unless it is confidential business information.  The Act also requires the disclosure of fragrance allergens greater than 0.01 percent (100 ppm).  Additional requirements include the manufacturer’s toll-free telephone number and Internet web site address on the product label.

As for the online disclosure requirements, manufacturers must list all intentionally added ingredients and state their functional purpose.  All nonfunctional constituents present at above 0.01 percent (100 ppm) must also be listed.  The website must include electronic links for designated lists and a link to the hazard communication safety data sheet for the product.  In addition, specific requirements apply for the disclosure of fragrance allergens online.

The Act also adds a section to the California Labor Code imposing an obligation on employers who are required to provide employees with Safety Data Sheets (SDS).  Those employers must similarly make the printable information from the online disclosure available in the workplace.

Although it is a state law, the effect of the Cleaning Product Right to Know Act is certain to be felt by manufacturers across the country who sell their products into California, as is true of many of California’s other regulatory schemes, including Proposition 65, and will most likely result in a nationwide relabeling of covered products.

Given the Act’s numerous and in some cases highly technical requirements, manufacturers of cleaning products would be well advised to determine whether any of their products are subject to the Act, and take steps now to ensure compliance by 2020.  Conkle, Kremer & Engel attorneys stand ready to help manufacturers handle all that is coming their way.

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The “Fourth Tier” of Beer: Internet Sales and Direct-to-Consumer Delivery

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In previous posts, we discussed the background of the three-tier system of alcohol sales in the United States – manufacturer (or importer), distributor, and retailer.  For the beer consumer, historically this has meant purchasing beer immediately, in person, at a restaurant, bar or liquor store.  Each state has its own licensing requirements and operational rules for such brick-and-mortar sites selling beer.  But with the ubiquity and borderless nature of the internet, what some call the “fourth tier” of craft beer sales is rapidly taking root.  Following models previously used in the wine industry, several beer delivery websites and cell phone apps are now available, with the proprietors often providing “services” to otherwise licensed beer sellers (i.e. not taking legal possession of or selling the products themselves, but instead acting as service-providers to the licensed sellers).  For regional brands without an expansive distribution footprint, and for the craft beer lovers who seek out those regional beers, this is a promising development.

States have begun to reshape their policies and laws to accommodate this relatively new direct-to-consumer beer delivery conduit.  As can be expected in this early developmental stage, there is a wide range of permitted activity among the different states.  The most permissive regulations in a small number of states allow suppliers, both in-state and out-of-state, to make unlimited shipments for consumers’ personal use.  Other states require suppliers to obtain a simple permit in order to ship beer direct to consumers.  Certain states only permit direct-to-consumer shipments from in-state breweries, along with outbound shipments to out-of-state consumers.  Some states allow outbound shipments to other states but no in-state shipments whatsoever.  Several states prohibit direct-to-consumer shipments of beer altogether.  Perhaps needless to say, potential international sales present an entirely different set of complications.

In California, beer (not wine, which is treated differently) can be sold directly to consumers via the internet with certain restrictions.  These restrictions are not directed at the internet as a sales medium per se – instead, the restrictions stem more from the historical requirements placed on importation and off-premises alcohol retailers.  (See, e.g., California Business and Professions Code §§ 23661 and 23671.)  With respect to retail sales, the seller must already be licensed to sell beer in California by “traditional” means.  First, the seller must have a licensed brick-and-mortar location in California.  Second, the seller must keep their inventory at that particular location (i.e. no shipments directly from the seller’s suppliers).  Third, the seller has to sell (or at least be able to sell) products at that location itself and not solely online – in other words, the seller must have a real in-person sales facility, not just a warehouse to service internet sales.  (See 4 California Code of Regulations § 27.)  With respect to sales directly from California-based beer manufacturers, the California ABC has determined that “as a matter of policy,” beer manufacturers are permitted to make online sales of beer to consumers.  (See Form ABC-409.)  It remains to be seen, however, if California will continue to allow beer delivery websites and apps to operate under the auspices of “services” or if additional requirements will be imposed on such providers.  (It’s also worth noting that the U.S. Postal Service will not transport alcohol – that must be done through a private carrier.)

It is easy to see that anyone wishing to distribute beer by online sales, especially across state lines, can quickly put themselves at risk of regulatory or legal issues.  If you are a brewery, retailer, or beer delivery service that wishes to engage in internet or other direct-to-consumer sales, it is advisable to contact qualified counsel for assistance before beginning or expanding such service.

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