Ready or Not, FFCRA is Here

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The new Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA) became effective April 1, 2020, as the first substantial U.S. labor law response to the extensive disruption of employment resulting from COVID-19. Employers with fewer than 500 employees are affected, and need to understand its implications to be able to respond legally and appropriately. The most important parts of FFCRA are divided into three sections:

  • Emergency Paid Sick Leave Act (EPSLA)
  • Emergency Family and Medical Leave Expansion Act (EFMLA)
  • Tax Credits for Paid Sick and Paid Family and Medical Leave.

Be sure to read to the end – the Tax Credits are how employers get repaid the benefits that FFCRA requires them to pay employees.

Employers’ Notice Posting Requirements Under the FFCRA

As an initial note, the Department of Labor (DOL) has issued guidance on the FFCRA providing that employers with fewer than 500 employees are required to post a Notice of employees’ paid leave rights under the FFCRA conspicuously in their workplace. If some or all of an employer’s workers are working remotely, this notice requirement can be satisfied via email, regular mail, or a posting to the employer’s internal or external website. Employees who were recently laid off need not be provided with the Notice. The DOL guidelines will be the subject of another blog post in the near future.

The Emergency Paid Sick Leave Act (EPSLA)

The EPSLA requires employers with fewer than 500 employees to provide employees with Emergency Paid Sick Leave (EPSL), in addition to any leave accrued pursuant to the employer’s existing paid sick leave policy. An employee is entitled to use EPSL if the employee is unable to work or telework because they are:

  1. Subject to a federal, state or local quarantine or isolation order
  2. Advised by a health care provider to self-quarantine
  3. Experiencing COVID-19 symptoms and seeking medical diagnosis
  4. Caring for an individual subject to a federal, state or local quarantine or isolation order or advised by a health care provider to self-quarantine due to COVID-19 concerns
  5. Caring for the employee’s child if the child’s school or place of care is closed or the child’s care provider is unavailable due to public health emergency
  6. Experiencing any other substantially similar condition specified by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of Labor

Employees qualify for emergency paid sick leave regardless of the duration of their employment prior to the leave, and cannot be forced to exhaust other forms of accrued leave prior to using the new emergency paid sick leave. Employers must pay eligible employees for EPSL, but the FFCRA places caps on the amount:

• Full-time employees are to be paid for 80 hours at their “regular rate of pay” (as defined in the Fair Labor Standard Act) when the emergency paid sick leave taken for reasons 1 though 3 (limited to $511/day or $5,110 total per employee); and two-thirds of the employee’s regular rate of pay when leave is taken for reasons 4 through 6 (limited to $200/day, or $2,000 total per employee).
• Part-time employees are to be paid in the same manner, except the number of hours is based on the average number of hours worked over a two-week period.

The Emergency Family and Medical Leave Expansion Act (EFMLEA)

EFMLEA requires affected employers to allow eligible employees to take up to 12 weeks of paid leave if they are unable to work or telework due to the need to care for their minor child because the child’s school or childcare is unavailable due to Coronavirus-related reasons. The first 14 days (2 weeks) of the leave is unpaid, but the remaining 10 weeks must be paid at two-thirds of the employee’s regular rate of pay (limited to $200/day and $10,000 in the aggregate per employee). Note that an employee may elect to use ordinary accrued paid sick, vacation and/or PTO leave to cover the initial 10-day unpaid time period, and may also qualify for EPSLA.

Employers with 25 or more employees are required to return any employee who takes EFMLEA leave under this section to the same or an equivalent position upon the employee’s return to work. Employers with fewer than 25 employees are exempted from this requirement if they can show that, despite good faith efforts to restore the employee’s position, due to economic hardship no such position exists following the leave.

The DOL has advised that employers with fewer than 50 employees qualify for exemption from providing EFMLEA leave if it would “jeopardize the viability of the business as a going concern.” Employers seeking this exemption should document why their business meets this criteria.

Employer Tax Credits For Paid Leave under FFCRA

FFCRA includes crucial tax credit provisions intended to reimburse employers for mandatory employees’ paid leave benefits under the FFCRA. 100 percent of qualified (i.e. subject to the limits discussed above) sick and family leave payments made each quarter, through December 31, 2020, are exempt from the employer’s portion of payroll taxes. The credit is an offset to any payroll tax liability the employer has in the calendar quarter. Any excess amounts of paid leave above the employer-portion of the payroll taxes and deposit will be refunded to the employer. Employers should consult a tax professional regarding the full scope and limitations of these tax credits as they apply to their businesses.

Employers Who Shut Down Operations or “Furlough” Employees Need Not Provide FFCRA Leave

The DOL’s guidance provides that employees are not entitled to take paid sick leave or family and medical leave if their employer closes their worksite before, on or after April 1, 2020 (or if the business stays open on or after April 1, 2020, and employees are furlough) if the business has been forced to shut down in response to a federal, state or local government directive.

Attorneys at Conkle, Kremer & Engel are monitoring the many legal implications of employers’ responses to COVID-19. CK&E is available to help businesses navigate compliance with the FFCRA, and other federal, state and local regulations intended to address the Coronavirus pandemic.

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New California Law to Classify Employees and Independent Contractors

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On September 11, 2019, California lawmakers passed California Assembly Bill 5 (AB 5), codifying and clarifying the California Supreme Court’s landmark 2018 decision in Dynamex Operations West, Inc. v. Superior Court of Los Angeles, which fundamentally altered the test for determining the classification of workers as employees or independent contractors in California. We previously blogged about the Dynamex decision, under which workers are presumed to be employees for purposes of claims for wages and benefits arising under Industrial Welfare Commission wage orders, and companies must meet a three-pronged “ABC” test to overcome this presumption and establish that an individual is an independent contractor. AB 5 would codify the ABC test into law.

AB 5 has been sent to Governor Gavin Newsom, who recently endorsed it in an op-ed for the Sacramento Bee, and he is expected to sign it into law.

Under AB 5, a new Section 2750.3 would be added to the California Labor Code. Section 2750.3, subsection (a)(1), will state that, for purposes of the Labor Code, the Unemployment Insurance Code, and the wage orders of the Industrial Welfare Commission, a person providing labor or services for remuneration shall be considered an employee rather than an independent contractor unless the hiring entity demonstrates that all of the following conditions are satisfied:
(A) The person is free from the control and direction of the hiring entity in connection with the performance of the work, both under the contract for the performance of the work and in fact;
(B) The person performs work that is outside the usual course of the hiring entity’s business; and
(C) The person is customarily engaged in an independently established trade, occupation or business of the same nature as that involved in the work performed.

Under the new law, California workers can generally only be considered independent contractors if the work they perform is outside the usual course of a company’s business. Conversely, a company must classify workers as employees if the company exerts control over how the workers perform their duties, or if their work is part of a company’s regular business.

AB 5 has far-reaching implications for California businesses who classify their workers as independent contractors because it extends the scope of the Dynamex ruling from only Industrial Wage Commission Orders to include claims for wages and benefits under the Labor Code and Unemployment Insurance Code. The Dynamex decision applied only to rules governing minimum wages, overtime and meal and rest breaks, but under AB 5, individuals classified as employees must also be afforded workers’ compensation in the event of an industrial injury, unemployment and disability insurance, paid sick days and family leave.

However, AB 5 is also narrower than the Dynamex decision in that it exempts certain occupations from the new test. The new Labor Code section would provide limited exemptions for certain occupations, including direct sales salespersons, licensed estheticians, licensed electrologists, licensed manicurists (until January 1, 2022), licensed barbers and licensed cosmetologists from the application Labor Code Section 2750.3 and the holding in Dynamex, provided that the individual:
• Sets their own rates, processes their own payments, and is paid directly by clients;
• Sets their own hours or work and has sole discretion to decide the number of clients and which clients for whom they will provide services;
• Has their own book of business and schedules their own appointments;
• Maintains their own business license for the services offered to clients; and
• If the individual is performing services at the location of the hiring entity, then the individual issues a Form 1099 to the salon or business owner from which they rent their business space.

If a company can meet its burden of showing that the individual meets the above criteria, then the determination of proper classification for that individual would be governed by S.G. Borello & Sons, Inc. v. Department of Industrial Relations, the 1989 decision that has been the prevailing law for wage order cases in California prior to Dynamex. Borello established an 11-factor inquiry into the degree of control a company exerts over the worker’s performance of his or her duties: whether the hiring entity has the right to control the manner and means of accomplishing the result desired; the right to discharge at will, without cause; whether the worker is engaged in a distinct occupation or business; the kind of occupation and the skill required in the particular occupation; who supplies the instrumentalities, tools and the place of work for the person doing the work; the length of time for which services are to be performed; the method of payment; whether or not the work is part of the hiring entity’s regular business; and whether or not the parties believe they are creating an employer-employee relationship.

Another aspect of AB 5 worth noting is that it would not allow an employer to reclassify an individual who was an employee on Janaury 1, 2019 to an independent contractor due to the measure’s enactment.

With the law set to become effective on January 1, 2020, companies, particularly in the salon and beauty industry, would be wise to reassess the classification of their workers to ensure compliance with the new law. The attorneys at Conkle, Kremer & Engel have extensive experience advising businesses on best practices regarding proper worker classification, and will be continually monitoring developments related to AB 5 as they occur.

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Do You Have to Pay Your Summer Interns?

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Do I Have to Pay My Interns?

Spring will soon draw to a close.  As you prepare for the arrival of your summer interns, make sure you have asked yourself this question: Do I need to pay my interns?

The easiest answer is generally, YES!  But the easiest answer is not the whole story, because you do not have to pay your interns in accordance with wage and hour laws if the company-intern relationship meets the federal (and state, as applicable) test.

The U.S. Department of Labor’s New Test

Earlier this year, the U.S. Department of Labor helped private businesses out.  It announced that it would be using a new (more employer-friendly) test to determine whether an intern is an “employee” that must be paid in compliance with wage and hour laws.  Whether an intern must be paid in compliance with federal wage and hour laws now depends on seven factors:

  • The extent to which the intern and the company clearly understand that there is no expectation of compensation. Any promise of compensation, express or implied, suggests that the intern is an employee—and vice versa;
  • The extent to which the internship provides training that would be similar to that which would be given in an educational environment, including the clinical and other hands-on training provided by educational institutions;
  • The extent to which the internship is tied to the intern’s formal education program by integrated coursework or the receipt of academic credit;
  • The extent to which the internship accommodates the intern’s academic commitments by corresponding to the academic calendar;
  • The extent to which the internship’s duration is limited to the period in which the internship provides the intern with beneficial learning;
  • The extent to which the intern’s work complements, rather than displaces, the work of paid employees while providing significant educational benefits to the intern; and
  • The extent to which the intern and the company understand that the internship is conducted without entitlement to a paid job at the conclusion of the internship.

According to the DOL, “no single factor is determinative.”  Thus, companies need to conduct a case-by-case analysis of each internship position to determine whether that intern should be paid.

I’m Located in California.  Do I Need to Be Concerned About State Laws Controlling Wage and Hour Requirements?

Here, the clear answer is YES!  For many years, the California Department of Labor Industrial Relations, Division of Labor Standards Enforcement (“DLSE”) has relied on the DOL’s old six-factor test.  For now, California businesses should also look to the DOL’s old six-factor test to determine whether they need to pay their interns.

The DOL’s adoption of this new seven-factor test this year followed a decision in the Ninth Circuit (which covers California).  In 2017, the federal Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals made a predictive statement, that the California Supreme Court would no longer use the old DOL test, and would instead apply a test more similar to the one set forth above.  Benjamin v. B & H Educ., Inc., 877 F.3d 1139 (9th Cir. 2017).  However, this statement is only predictive of what the federal court thinks the California courts would do, so it is not actually controlling law in California.

Thus, until the California state agencies and courts take a position on whether they will follow the Ninth Circuit and the DOL, companies should also check that they have considered the DLSE’s interns test to make their decision to pay (or not pay) interns.  That requires an analysis under the DOL’s old six-factor test:

  • The internship, even though it includes actual operation of the facilities of the company, is similar to training which would be given in an educational environment;
  • The internship experience is for the benefit of the intern;
  • The intern does not displace regular employees, but works under close supervision of existing staff;
  • The company that provides the training derives no immediate advantage from the activities of the intern; and on occasion its operations may actually be impeded;
  • The intern is not necessarily entitled to a job at the conclusion of the internship; and
  • The company and the intern understand that the intern is not entitled to wages for the time spent in the internship.

If you have not examined your internship programs with these federal and state legal considerations in mind, you should do so immediately, before your summer interns arrive.  Review your internship materials, including your recruitment postings, company policies, and any other documents you anticipate having the intern sign before starting the summer program.

Conkle, Kremer & Engel attorneys are experienced with counseling employers in the face of a constantly changing legal landscape in employment law, and with helping companies identify and reduce areas of exposure to liability for employment claims, including wage and hour, discrimination, harassment, and retaliation claims.

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